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When most people talk about the security of a particular blockchain, they discuss the consensus algorithm such as proof of work or proof of stake or delegated proof of stake. That's just jargon to describe the technical details of how money and energy is put at risk and put to work to create the necessary game theory incentives to ensure your value is safe. As the private key holder, only you can move your funds and the consensus mechanisms ensure everyone agrees, or has consensus, on what tokens are yours and whether or not you've transferred them to anyone else.

The consensus algorithm for a blockchain is called layer 1. Bitcoin uses PoW (Proof of Work) and EOS, Hive and FIO use DPoS (Delegated Proof of Stake). It's important for people to realize what actually secures this layer 1 and that is what I call layer 0.

Layer zero is the number of human conscious people who believe the chain is valuable. Their time, attention, talent, funds, resources, and energy are what actually secure the chain. If they lose interest, they can redirect their PoW hashing power to a different chain, leaving the previous chain open to attack as we've seen with Ethereum Classic. We've seen this in DPoS as well when Justin Sun tried to take over the Steem blockchain community with threats of moving the tokens to Tron and convincing CZ to use customer tokens on Binance to take over the chain completely. In the end, he lost because layer zero responded by moving to Hive. You can read the whole story here on how Steem became Hive. The applications, users, and eventually market cap chose to support Hive over Steem (which I personally see as Justin Sun's privately controlled database).

I've been talking about this layer 0 concept for some time now as in this Twitter thread from 2020:

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When it comes to blockchain security, always keep layer zero in mind. This is what you want to grow and support. Technology is important and certainly has to work, but if it doesn't improve human lives, it is pointless. The best investment in security is in the strength and size of the community. As that grows, all the layers of security on top of it will be on a strong foundation and will have enough value involved to continue improving.

Choose which layer 0 you participate in carefully. Owning a governance token in (PoS, DPoS) or directing your hashing power towards (PoW) a layer 1 chain means you are a member of that layer 0. You are securing that ecosystem. Some ecosystems can bring you quick returns compared to others that are growing slow and steady for long-term adoption, but, like technology, if they don't actually improve the world in some meaningful way, what is the point? Moving deck chairs around on a sinking ship is stupid. Building the foundation for a new decentralized and secure economic world is far more valuable.

If you think cryptocurrency should be easier to use, and you're looking for an important layer zero community to join, check out what the team at is doing to make cryptocurrency easier to use for everyone.